By Murat Uzam
Programmable good judgment controllers (PLCs) are commonly utilized in to accomplish automation projects, with brands providing various PLCs that range in capabilities, software stories, and the variety of inputs/outputs (I/O). no longer strangely, the layout and implementation of those PLCs have lengthy been a mystery of brands. Unveiling the mysteries of PLC expertise, Building a Programmable common sense Controller with PIC16F648A Microcontroller explains how one can layout and use a PIC16F648A-microcontroller-based PLC.
The writer first defined a microcontroller-based implementation of a PLC in a chain of articles released in Electronics World journal among 2008 and 2010. This publication is predicated on a stronger model of the undertaking, including:
- Updates to the configuration, with a smaller CPU board and I/O extension forums that now aid sixteen inputs and sixteen outputs rather than 8
- An elevated clock frequency of 20 MHz
- Improvements to numerous macros
- Flowcharts that can assist you comprehend the macros (functions)
In this publication, the writer offers particular motives of and software program constructions. He additionally describes PIC meeting macros for all uncomplicated PLC capabilities, that are illustrated with quite a few examples and flowcharts. An accompanying CD comprises resource records (.ASM) and item documents (.HEX) for all the examples within the ebook. It additionally offers published circuit board (PCB) (Gerber and .pdf) records for you to have the CPU board and I/O extension forums produced by way of a PCB producer or produce your personal boards.
Making PLCs extra simply available, this designated ebook is written for complicated scholars, practising engineers, and hobbyists who are looking to the best way to construct their very own microcontroller-based PLC. It assumes a few prior wisdom of electronic common sense layout, microcontrollers, and PLCs, in addition to familiarity with the PIC16F sequence of microcontrollers and writing courses utilizing PIC meeting language inside of an MPLAB built-in improvement environment.
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Additional resources for Building a Programmable Logic Controller with a PIC16F648A Microcontroller
3. 2 shows the macro ld_not and its flowchart. This macro has a Boolean input variable passed into it as reg,bit, and a Boolean output variable passed out through W. In ladder logic, this macro is represented by a normally closed (NC) contact. When the input variable is 0 (respectively 1), the output (W) is forced to 1 (respectively to 0). 4. begin W 1 N ? 2 (a) The macro ld_not and (b) its flowchart.
Note that it may be possible to use PIC16F628A as the CPU, but one has to bear in mind that PIC16F628A provides the following: flash program memory (words), 2048; RAM data memory (bytes), 224; and EEPROM data memory (bytes), 128. In that case, it is necessary to take care of the usage of RAM data memory. 4 show the schematic diagram and photograph of the I/O extension board, respectively. The I/O extension board contains mainly two sections: eight discrete inputs and eight discrete outputs. The I/O extension connector DB9M seen on the left connects the I/O extension board to the CPU board or to a previous I/O extension board.
While the system is in S1 (the IN is HIGH and the OUT is LOW), before the dt1 ms time delay ends, if the falling edge (↓) of IN is detected (transition t5), then the system goes back to S0 from S1, and the time delay dt1 is canceled and the OUT remains LOW (no state change is issued). When the system is in S1 (the IN is HIGH and the OUT is LOW), if the input signal is still HIGH and the time delay dt1 has elapsed (transition t2), then the system moves from S1 to S2. , the OUT is set to HIGH. When the system is in S2 (the IN is HIGH and the OUT is HIGH), if the falling edge (↓) of IN is detected (transition t3), then the system moves from S2 to S3 and the debouncer starts a time delay, called debouncing time 2 (dt2).