By Steven Gorshe, Arvind Raghavan, Thomas Starr, Stefano Galli
Written via specialists within the box, this publication offers an outline of all kinds of broadband subscriber entry networks and expertise, together with fiber optics, DSL for cellphone traces, DOCSIS for coax, energy line provider, and instant. each one expertise is defined intensive, with a dialogue of key techniques, historic improvement, and criteria. The e-book includes finished insurance of all broadband entry applied sciences, with a bit every one dedicated to fiber-based applied sciences, non-fiber stressed applied sciences, and instant applied sciences. The 4 co-authors’ breadth of information is featured within the chapters evaluating the relative strengths, weaknesses, and analysis for the competing technologies.
- Covers the actual and medium entry layers (OSI Layer 1 and 2), with emphasis on entry transmission technology
- Compares and contrasts all contemporary and rising stressed out and instant criteria for broadband entry in one reference
- Illustrates the know-how that's at present being deployed by means of community services, and likewise the know-how that has lately been or will quickly be standardized for deployment within the coming years, together with vectoring, wavelength department a number of entry, CDMA, OFDMA, and MIMO
- Contains targeted dialogue at the following criteria: 10G-EPON, G-PON, XG-PON, VDSL2, DOCSIS 3.0, DOCSIS Protocol over EPON, strength line provider, IEEE 802.11 WLAN/WiFi, UMTS/HSPA, LTE, and LTE-Advanced
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Extra resources for Broadband Access: Wireline and Wireless - Alternatives for Internet Services
In the early 2000s, several vendors developed systems based on a DOCSIS-like protocol for ﬁxed access, where equipment would be installed at customers’ premises and provide the long-range backhaul for Ethernet-based LANs. Early on, these systems were proprietary, but the need for a common standard soon became apparent. 16 standard to provide long-range, ﬁxed wireless access under the title “Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks” (Wireless-MAN). 16, were mainly restricted to smaller deployments in low-density population centers where the cost of installing wired access was seen as expensive for the corresponding revenue potential.
4 Passive optical networks (PONs) were also explored as a way to reduce the cost per subscriber by reducing the number of optical transceivers and ﬁbers. 1, a PON system uses a single optical transceiver at the OLT to serve multiple subscribers over a ﬁber tree constructed with passive optical signal splitters. The ﬁrst serious trial PON system was developed and deployed by British Telecom . First generation PON systems were also developed by both major equipment vendors and startup companies.
Different generations of PON technology allow different numbers of ONUs to be connected to an individual PON, but 16 and 32 are typical numbers, with some systems connecting up to 64 and future systems being capable of higher numbers. , 32-to-1). PON systems typically transmit both upstream and downstream data over the same ﬁber. In some cases, only directional couplers are used to separate the upstream and downstream trafﬁc, but higher speed systems typically use different wavelengths in each direction.