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By Thomas Lengauer, Raimund Mannhold, Hugo Kubinyi, Hendrik Timmerman

Offers a huge, application-oriented evaluate of this expertise. The state of the art in bioinformatics is evaluated both from an international view via introducing genuine software situations.

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The oxygen-sensitive dye is embedded in a silicone matrix, which is permanently attached to the bottom of each well of a microplate. The gaspermeable matrix allows oxygen in the vicinity of the dye to be in equilibrium with the oxygen in the liquid medium. Oxygen quenches the ability of the dye to fluoresce in a predictable, concentration-dependent manner. g. as cells grow and consume oxygen in the surrounding medium), the concentration of oxygen in the matrix decreases and the fluorescence increases.

Therefore, they need to move from one compartment to the other in order to perform their functions. Typical examples are latent cytoplasmic transcription factors [44] or nuclear transport factors [94]. Assays for nuclear transport factors using heterokaryon formation in combination with fluorescent proteins have been described [95]. The movement of latent cytoplasmic transcription factors upon activation to the nucleus can be monitored and quantified by automated fluorescence imaging. IL-1induced and tumor necrosis factor-a-induced translocation of NF-kB to the nucleus has been quantified with the application of the Cellomics ArrayScan II technology [96].

In the latter case, high overexpression is one of the hallmarks of cell resistance to cancer chemotherapy. This observation is a result of anticancer drugs being actively pumped out of cells, resulting in decreased intracellular drug levels. Small molecules capable of reversing efflux can restore drug sensitivity in resistant tumor cells. The most commonly used assays to identify MDR pump inhibitors are based on fluorescent P-glycoprotein substrates such as Hoechst 33342, rhodamine 123 and rhodamine 6G.

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