By Philip C. Kendall and Steven D. Hollon (Eds.)
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Additional info for Assessment Strategies for Cognitive–Behavioral Interventions
Keele, 1973; Neely, 2. Attributional Styles 37 1977; Posner & Snyder, 1975; Schneider & Shiffrin, 1977; Shiffrin & Schneider, 1977) also has implications for our conceptualization of the attribution process. These theories posit two distinct types of cognitive processing: One is rapid, occurs without conscious awareness, and does not show capacity limitations; the other is deliberate, occurs with conscious awareness, and shows capacity limitations. A major contribution of contemporary cognitive theorists has been their demonstration of the ubiquity of automatic processes in everyday inferences (Johnson-Laird & Wason, 1977).
The distinction indicates that attributional content may differ between two people, both of whom display attributional styles. That is, two people may exhibit attributional styles that differ in content. " Of course, people may also exhibit attributional styles that are similar in content. , Note 5). " Conversely, people low in depression, low in testanxiety, low in social anxiety, high in achievement motivation, or high in selfesteem, and nondepressed schizophrenic patients have been shown to consistently attribute negative events to such factors as "bad luck" (see pages 21-24).
High Cell 3. Paul takes his first exam in graduate school and fails. He has no strong generalized beliefs about his competence as a graduate student or about the difficulty of graduate work. He acquires situational information that all his fellow graduate students did very well on the exam in spite of the fact that he studied more hours than they did. , lack of ability). Low Cell 7. Paul takes his first exam in graduate school and fails. He has no strong generalized beliefs about his competence as a graduate student or about the difficulty of graduate work.