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By P. Müller

Zoogeography goals to provide an explanation for the constitution, functionality and heritage of the geo­ graphical levels of animals. The absence or presence of a species in a given position has ecological in addition to old explanations. it's hence a mistake to think that reconstructing the phylogenetic connections of a taxon will on its own provide a distinct photo of the way its variety originated. A merely ecological interpretation of the variety will be both deceptive if it didn't take into consideration the population-genetic constitution underlying the geographical diversity. Phylogenetic systematics, inhabitants genetics, autecology and synecology have all their very own equipment, none of that are substituted for one more, with no which a variety can't be studied or interpreted. the current e-book covers merely convinced points of the extensive box of zoogeo­ graphy. those are within the shape within which they have been crystallised during innumerable discussions with my academics, my colleagues at domestic and out of the country and my fellow employees, postgraduates and scholars at Saarbriicken, in addition to within the zoogeographical a part of may possibly simple lectures on biogeography for the yr 1973-1974. the manager emphasis is laid at the genetic and ecological macro­ constitution of the biosphere as an area for diversity constructions and variety dynamics, on city ecosystems, that have hitherto been grossly missed, and at the latest background of levels (the dispersal centre concept). The marine and fresh-water biocycles, nevertheless, were dealt merely briefly.

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Eurythemae in the Nearctic) and Choristoneura (Tortricidae, on conifers). Also characteristic are the giant salamanders (Cryptobranchidae) occurring in East Asia and North America, the true salamanders (Salamandridae) and the olms or Proteidae. f. FLINDT and HEMMER 1972). f. DEEVEY 1949, KURTEN 1968) and partly in ecologically similar environments - continuous tundra and taiga zones etc. Numerous Fig. 36. Intercontinental connection in geographical range (a fter I LlIES 1970). = Migration route of outhern group (Siphlo nuridae).

Ig. 34. />. Vl 1970); :::::::::::~ . cil/clI/rlls; 111111111111 = A. phoellic/lr/ls. Fig. 35. Distribulion of the superspecies AIIIIIIO/ll(/lIeS cillcllIruS. An example of the Saharo-Sindian distributional type (after HALL & MOR EAU, realm still shows its own peculiar features that strike a scientific naturalist immediately he sets foot in one of them. The best studied of all Realms is the Holarctic Realm, whose great zoogeographical importance was particularly well worked out by REINIG (1937).

CONSTRICTOR CONSTR. NEBULOSUS GLAUCIS HIRSUTA EMPIDONAX EULERI ...... ELAENIA FLAVOGASTER ----- TURDUS FURNIGATUS ---- VOlATINIA JACARINA Fig. 38. The northern limits of South American taxa in the region of Trinidad and Tobago. comidae and Echimyidae, the peccaries (Tayassuidae), and the bat families Desmodontidae, Natalidae, Furipteridae, Thyropteridae and Phyllostomatidae. The insectivore family of the Solenodontidae is restricted to the Antilles. It is virtually certain that the inventory of species of mammal in this realm is still far from complete.

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