By Jonathan Robert Bart, Victoria Helen Johnston
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Additional info for Arctic Shorebirds in North America : a Decade of Monitoring
We therefore used the combined approach to reduce the bias, even though this means that the estimated population size for a region with several strata does not equal the sum of the stratum-specific estimates. The combined approach yields somewhat larger SEs than using the separate approach but much smaller bias. We consider the approach “conservative” in that sense. CONCLUSION When we began the study we expected to use distance, double-observer, or some other welldeveloped method for estimating detection rates and obtaining unbiased estimates of population size.
Seven nests or probable nests, 77 pairs, and 60 singles were recorded on the YDSA, almost exclusively in wetlands, while only a single pair was observed on the SSA. The estimated number of pairs breeding on the surveyed plots was 118. 24), respectively. Prior estimates in the same area ranged from Ͼ 100/km2 in wet coastal saltgrass meadows to 4/km2 Ͼ 2 km inland in moist dwarf shrub mat tundra (Handel and Gill 1992). 25). This estimate is a significant fraction of the estimated global population of 95,000 (Handel and Gill 1992, Morrison et al.
S. Geological Survey, primarily on federal lands (including National Parks, National Wildlife Refuges, and on Bureau of Land Management holdings). Most of these studies were characterized by the use of 10 km ϫ 10 km sample units within large geographical areas, count points with detection probabilities estimated through distance sampling, stratified random designs, and a primary focus on upland and montane habitats (Tibbitts et al. 2005, Ruthrauff et al. 2007, Ruthrauff and Tibbitts 2009). These habitats typically supported very different shorebird communities than the small, local plot studies described in the preceding paragraph.