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By Joel Wallman

This booklet is a critique of the experiments of contemporary years that attempted to coach language to apes. The achievements of those animals are in comparison with the normal improvement of language, either spoken and signed types, in teenagers. it really is argued that the apes in those stories got in simple terms crude simulations of language instead of language itself and that there's no solid proof that apes can collect a language. A survey of the verbal exchange structures of apes and monkeys in nature reveals that those platforms range from language in profound ways--language is a uniquely human characteristic.

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28 Part two The Artificial-language Projects The Lana project THE NATURE OF LANA'S SYMBOL STRINGS The assessments of Lana's performance by the Lana researchers take a strong form of the tendency among ape-language researchers to overinterpret their animals' behavior in the direction of human language, elevating to linguistic status behavior more cogently explained in simpler terms. Lana's "sentences" provide a good example. It is clear that most of Lana's sentences were learned as rote sequences of key presses, yet Rumbaugh et al.

The phrases these units were combined with were numerous, resulting in 69 different "stock sentences," that is, recurrent construction types. This magnitude of diversity, they argue, militates against the notion of the stock sentence and suggests the operation of a system of productive grammatical rules, albeit with phrases rather than lexigrams as the elemental constituents. In order to assess this rejoinder to the Thompson-Church study 32 The Lana project properly, one would need to know certain things about the questions put to Lana during these sessions.

Recursive rules thus confer great power on natural languages and certain other representational systems, since they are a finite means for producing an infinite number of expressions (Chomsky 1957). Such systems can be contrasted with, on the one hand, those natural 41 The artificial-language projects communication systems in which messages can vary only along a single dimension and in a merely quantitative fashion and, on the other, those having qualitatively distinct signals but lacking combinatorial principles.

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