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By Robert W. Mitchell, Nicholas S. Thompson, H. Lyn Miles

Humans typically imagine that animals are psychologically like themselves (anthropomorphism), and describe what animals do in narratives (anecdotes) that aid those mental interpretations. this can be the 1st e-book to guage the importance and value of the practices of anthropomorphism and anecdotalism for figuring out animals. assorted views are awarded in considerate, serious essays via historians, philosophers, anthropologists, psychologists, behaviorists, biologists, primatologists, and ethologists. the character of anthropomorphism and anecdotal research is tested; social, cultural, and historic attitudes towards them are awarded; and clinical attitudes are appraised. Authors offer attention-grabbing in-depth descriptions and analyses of numerous species of animals, together with octopi, nice apes, monkeys, canine, sea lions, and, in fact, humans. matters approximately, and recommendations for, reviews of various mental features of animals are mentioned, together with psychological kingdom attribution, intentionality, cognition, recognition, self-consciousness, and language.

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Example text

One is lulled and lured into accepting evolution by anthropomorphic descriptions of animal behavior. For example: Animals . . love approbation or praise; and a dog carrying a basket for his master exhibits in a high degree selfcomplacency or pride. There can, I think, be no doubt that a dog feels shame . . and something very like modesty when begging too often for food. A great dog scorns the snarling of a little dog, and this may be called magnanimity. Several observers have stated that monkeys certainly dislike being laughed at; and they sometimes invent imaginary offences.

Next page > < previous page page_19 next page > Page 19 added a bridge between perceptual and conceptual thought. " A recept was a compound idea of previous similar perceptions, "an idea which differs from a general or abstract idea only in not being consciously fixed and signed as an idea by means of an abstract name" (Romanes, 1888, p. 36). A recept is, so to speak, an idea you are not aware that you have. In receptual thought, compound ideas joining a number of remembered perceptions could be held by very small children and animals, neither of whom had the articulate language necessary for abstract general ideas.

Darwin, 1871/1981, p. 76). "What a strong feeling of inward satisfaction must impel a bird, so full of activity, to brood day after day over her eggs" (p. 79). Again, however, dogs seem to be especially singled out for something a shade superior: Besides love and sympathy, animals exhibit other qualities which in us would be called moral; and I agree with Agassiz that dogs possess something very like a conscience. They certainly possess some power of self-command . . Dogs have long been accepted as the very type of fidelity and obedience.

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