By Marilyn J. Landis, Roger Garaudy
The risk and pleasure of Antarctic exploration are unequalled within the annals of experience shuttle. Antarctica: Exploring the intense surveys 4 centuries and forty expeditions to Antarctica, recounting, usually within the explorers' personal phrases, the wonders and the catastrophes they encountered. terrific points of interest, hair-raising escapes, and macabre deaths from storms and scurvy attended Ferdinand Magellan's 1520 passage in the course of the southern straits and Captain John Biscoe's 1830 Antarctic circumnavigation. Nineteenth-century sealing and whaling expeditions from all over the world are chronicled, and Ernest Shackleton's, Roald Amundsen's, and Robert Scott's anguishing trials of physique and spirit of their separate struggles to arrive the South Pole early within the twentieth century are particular. a last part describes Antarctica this day, detailing the natural world and geology of a zone that's drawing more and more viewers who, just like the adventurers ahead of them, are serious about the isolation, good looks, and problem of the continent.
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The Captain General was determined to sail as far as 75 degrees south latitude, where there is no night, if he had not found this passage to the sea,” wrote Pigafetta. During their passage through the treacherous strait, they faced strong currents that foamed over hidden rocks and winds that howled down from the stark, snowcapped peaks. Hiding among the stunted birch trees near the shore, curious but shy Patagonians watched the ships maneuver through a maze of channels. In the evenings their campﬁres twinkled in the darkness.
Life expectancy was three to ﬁve years for a newly recruited Royal Navy man. James Cook survived those grim statistics and rose through the ranks, gaining a reputation as a man who exceeded each assignment’s objectives. While surveying the coast of Newfoundland in 1766, Cook made detailed measurements of the eclipse of the sun. He submitted his work to the Royal Society, which published his observations. A year later, the Royal Navy recommended Cook to command the expedition to the South Paciﬁc to study the transit of Venus across the face of the sun.
Cantankerous and cynical, Reinhold Forster made life miserable for his long-suffering son. ” However, no one found comfort or escape from the violent downpours and high seas as Cook steered for Cape Town, South Africa. “I was suddenly driven out of my bed by a ﬂood of Saltwater rushing down upon my head through the seams. . I was fairly soused,” grumbled the elder Forster. The carpenter caulked the deck seams with oakum and tar but still rivulets of seawater continued to douse Forster and his cabin became “a scene of desolation .