By Patrick Saint-Dizier
This e-book is an creation to Prolog (£rQgramming in ~ic). It provides the fundamental foundations of Prolog and uncomplicated and basic programming tools. This e-book is written for programmers accustomed to different programming languages, in addition to for newbies in computing device technological know-how, keen to have an unique creation to programming. The strategy followed during this ebook is therefore in response to methodological parts including a few pragmatic features. The e-book consists of 2 components. within the fIrst half the key elements of programming in Prolog are provided step-by-step. each one new point is illustrated via brief examples and workouts. the second one half consists of extra built examples, that are frequently video games, that illustrate significant points of synthetic intelligence. extra complicated books are given within the bibliography and should let the reader to deepen his or her recognize ledge of Prolog. Prolog was once first designed in France at OJ.A., Marseille, with a particular syntax. we've got followed right here a extra universal notation, outlined at Edinburgh, which has a tendency to be an implicit norm. on the finish of every bankruptcy of the 1st half, there are workouts that the reader is invited to do and to check on his or her laptop. whole solutions are given in Appendix A, on the finish of the book.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Programming in Prolog
Consider the relation child _ of(X, V). which states in a general fashion that X is the child of Y, and the following knowledge base: child of(john,jack). child-of(catherine,marcel). child:of(edith,sylvia). child of(philip,edith). child-of(sylvia,julie). child:of(sylvia,john). child_of(max,catherine). Suppose that to the facts shown above we now wish to add the relation grandparent(X, V). which states that X is a grandparent of Y. This can be done in two ways: by creating a new set of facts or by defining a rule.
We then no longer need to refer to the current element and to the next element at each level since: = = = next element (i) = = current element (i) + 2 = current element (i + 1). We now have the relation current element (i + 1) =current element (i) + 2. This relation is called the recurrence relation. The end of the calculation will be just before the calculation of current element (10), since the levels are numbered from 0 to 9. Recursion is expressed in a similar fashion to recurrence. It also comprises three elements: · an initial condition, given in Prolog by the call to a recursive procedure, · a development plan, which in Prolog contains the recursive call, · a stop condition, often expressed by another procedure.
These rules can be considered to be facts that have some variable arguments. Let us assume that we have a fact base that describes individuals. If it contains the relation know(X, Y), which states that X knows Y, we may then have the following rule: know(X,X). which does not contain conditions and which expresses the reflexive character of the relation. " Such a rule must be used cautiously, however. If the above database describes not only humans but also objects, it would be useful to add a constraint: know(X,X) :- person(X).