By Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber
Advances in Photovoltaics: Part Four offers useful details at the demanding situations confronted throughout the transformation of our power provide approach to extra effective, renewable energies.
The quantity discusses the subject from an international viewpoint, featuring the most recent info on photovoltaics, a cornerstone technology.
It covers all elements of this crucial semiconductor expertise, reflecting at the super and dynamic advances which have been made in this subject due to the fact 1975, while the 1st ebook on sun cells-written by means of Harold J. Hovel of IBM-was released as quantity eleven within the now recognized sequence on Semiconductors and Semimetals.
Readers will achieve a behind the curtain examine the continual and fast medical improvement that results in the mandatory expense and value mark downs in worldwide business mass-production.
- Written through prime, the world over recognized specialists on his topic
- Provides an in-depth review of the present prestige and views of skinny movie PV technologies
- Discusses the demanding situations confronted through the transformation of our power provide procedure to extra effective, renewable energies
- Delves deep into photovoltaics, a cornerstone technolog
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Extra info for Advances in Photovoltaics: Part 4
The outer diameter has to be slightly larger than the crystal to be grown and the feed to be molten, respectively. Operational frequencies are in the range of 500 kHz up to 3 MHz, preferably in the range of 2–3 MHz. , 1994). The FZ process provides a perfect optical access (Fig. 24) and process control is either performed manually by the operator according to direct observation of the growth process or it is based on image processing. Heat transfer by radiofrequency is extremely fast. In contrast to resistance heating used for Cz, where the heat is transferred from the heater to the crucible by radiation absorbed at the surface only, induction heating generates heat in a boundary layer of several tens or some hundreds of micrometers, depending on the frequency and the material.
There is still a huge pressure with respect to cost reduction. PV based on crystalline silicon can only defend its market position if the costs are still reduced further. But at the same time, the cell efficiencies move toward the 25% level. With multipulling or continuous operation in the case of Cz or with the development of low-cost 800 FZ ingots, or with the further scaling and defect engineering in the case of multicrystalline casting, there are still many options for improvements. , 1998.
Due to these reasons (and the fact that there are only a limited number of producers able to handle the process properly), the price for FZ feed rods is several times higher than it is the case for solar-grade polysilicon. Alternatives are under investigation. , 2011a,b). The furnace looks a bit different from a conventional one: a second inductor is implemented for melting of the granules. Of course, special care is necessary that no granules come close to the solid–liquid interface, or the structure would be lost immediately.