By Frederick W. Alt
Advances in Immunology, a fashioned and hugely revered booklet, offers present advancements in addition to entire studies in immunology. Articles tackle the wide variety of themes that contain immunology, together with molecular and mobile activation mechanisms, phylogeny and molecular evolution, and scientific modalities. Edited and authored through the main scientists within the box, each one quantity offers updated details and instructions for the future.
* Contributions from prime gurus * Informs and updates on the entire most modern advancements within the box
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Additional info for Advances in Immunology
In steady state, NIK protein level is constitutively regulated by TRAF3-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Although TRAF3 plays an indispensable role in NIK regulation as proved by genetic studies (Wallach & Kovalenko, 2008), TRAF3 has been thought to have a role as an adaptor that recruits 46 Yoon Park et al. , 2007). Upon CD40 stimulation, TRAF3 recruits both TRAF2 and the associated cIAP1/2 to the receptor and then TRAF2 catalyzes K63linked polyubiquitin chains on cIAP1/2. Modified cIAP1/2 with K63linked ubiquitin facilitates K48-linked polyubiquitination of TRAF3, which results in proteasomal degradation.
2009) showed that loss of GRAIL increases total levels of ERK. Obviously, further investigation is required to define the exact molecular mechanisms how GRAIL controls naı¨ve CD4 + T-cell proliferation and anergy. 4. TRAF6 Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a member of TRAF protein family, which plays a critical role in both innate and adaptive immune responses by mediating signal transduction from members of the TNF superfamily, the Toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 receptor (TLR/IL-1R) family, and the TCR (Inoue, Gohda, & Akiyama, 2007; Kobayashi, Walsh, & Choi, 2004).
Although a precise working mechanism of Bortezomib is not fully unveiled, it has clearly shown that proteasome inhibition by Bortezomib leads to apoptosis in malignant cells by upregulating proapoptotic proteins and downregulating antiapoptotic proteins. Recent reports revealed that the modulation of not only proteasome but also E3 ligase activity is critical for treating multiple myeloma. , 2014). , 2014). As seen in the development of small molecules as an anticancer drug, a detailed mechanistic understanding of the ubiquitin pathway is essential for the design of new therapeutic approaches.