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Tw Keywords: nanomanipulator, scanning electron microscope, nanofabrication Abstract. With rapid expansion of nanotechnology, microminiaturization has become imperative in the field of micro/nano fabrication. A nanomanipulation system with high degrees of freedom that can perform nanomachining, nanofabrication and mechanical/electrical characterization of nanoscale objects inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) is presented. The manipulation system consists of several individual operating units each having three linear stages and one rotational stage.

5. Execute the FEA after step 4 to each modified structural layout that the critical properties such as the minimum compliance (C) and maximum stress are obtained as target values. 6. Apply the numerical curve-fitting using a polynomial of suitable degree to construct approximate function. For example, an approximate function of polynomial of degree three is: Max σ e (V ) = a3V 3 + a2V 2 − a1V + a0 (4) where each ai represents a coefficient needed to be determined. 7. In the current paper, both compliance and the volume fraction are simultaneously desired to minimize so that it can be formulated by weighting strategy as follows.

The extra production time scale is claimed to allow the energy transfer mechanism of turbulence to respond to the mean strain rate more effectively. This results in an extra constant in the  equation. Boundary Conditions. Because the governing equations are elliptic in spatial coordinates, the boundary conditions are required for all boundaries of the computation domain. At the inlet boundary, uniform flow rate and temperature are assumed. The ambient pressure is set at outlet boundary. On the symmetry planes (X-Y planes and X-Z planes) normal gradients are set to zero.