By Joanna Radwanska-Williams
The overall thought of language of Mikołaj Kruszweski (1851-1887) is, this ebook argues, a “lost paradigm” within the heritage of linguistics. the concept that of 'paradigm' is known in a largely construed Kuhnian feel, and its applicability to linguistics as a technological know-how is tested. it truly is argued that Kruszewski's conception was once a covert paradigm in that his significant paintings, Ocerk nauki o jazyke ('An define of the technology of Language', 1883), had the aptitude to be seminal within the historical past of linguistics, i.e. to accomplish the prestige of a 'classical text', or 'exemplar'. This capability used to be now not discovered simply because Kruszewski's impression was once hindered via a variety of ancient components, together with his early loss of life and the simultaneous consolidation of the Neogrammarian paradigm, with its emphasis on phonology and language switch. The booklet examines the highbrow history of Kruszweski's proposal, which was once rooted, partially, within the culture of British empiricism. It additionally discusses Kruszewski's courting to his instructor Jean Baudouin de Courtenay (1845-1929), his angle in the direction of the Neogrammarian stream in linguistics, the ambivalent reception of his conception by means of his contemporaries, and the effect of his paintings at the linguistic idea of Roman Jakobson (1896-1982).
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Extra resources for A Paradigm Lost: The linguistic thought of Mikołaj Kruszewski
For example, in the Aristotelian syllogism: "All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore Socrates is mortal", both the major and the minor premise are inductive propositions. The major premise, "all men are mortal", is a generalization from experience, while the minor premise, "Socrates is a man", is an observation. Thus, induction precedes deduction, HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 21 and the role of deduction is to draw out the implication of what is already known: "therefore, Socrates is mortal".
To allow exceptions is merely to admit unexplained phenomena. 57): There are seeming exceptions to these laws; nevertheless, under closer scrutiny the exceptions appear governed by certain causes, by forces that have prevented the causes or forces accounting for the general law from embracing the seeming exceptions. ] The seeming exception is, strictly speaking, only a corroboration of the general law. Baudouin's position here with respect to the question of exceptions to linguistic laws is strikingly similar to the Neogrammarians; in the 1880s, his position changed, as I shall argue in Chap.
The second development which influenced the further fate of associa tionism was the impact of Darwin's theory of evolution (1859). It can be argued that the Darwinian revolution was the final phase of the scientific revolution which began with Copernicus and Galileo, and which produced a change in the medieval worldview of the relationship between knowledge and authority. While Copernicus and Galileo changed the view of the universe, Darwin changed the view of man. The focus of philosophical discussion shifted back to the metaphysical issues involved in the question of the relationship between scientific knowledge and Biblical authority.